Normal heart

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Normal heart

  • Use this image as a normal reference for this image gallery
  • The heart size is normal – cardiothoracic ratio (cardiac width/thoracic width) is less than 50%
  • The upper zone vessels are normal – they are smaller than the lower zone vessels
  • The lungs are clear – indicating there is no pulmonary oedema
  • The costophrenic angles are well defined (asterisks) – indicating there is no pleural effusion

Pericardial fat pad

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Pericardial fat pad

  • The heart size is normal in this image
  • Accurate measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio can be difficult if there is a pericardial fat pad
  • The width of a pericardial fat pad – which may have to be estimated – should not be included in the measurement of the cardiac size